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How to Cite a Cartoon in APA


Even writers well-versed in American Psychological Association style may take pause as they attempt to cite a cartoon. The guidelines for citing television series episodes clearly express the information you must include to craft a complete, correct APA bibliographic reference or in-text citation, ensuring that even your atypical sources lend credibility to your writing.

Reference List

Add a period and leave a space after each piece of information in the reference, unless otherwise noted. Leave spaces between first and last names, title words, and in dates, as you would in standard writing. Type the writer's name, the parenthetical note “(Writer),” and make an ampersand. Type the director's name then add the parenthetical note “(Director).” Enter both names in last name-comma-first initial format. Parenthetically cite the date of broadcast in year-month-day format and insert a comma after the year. State the name of the cartoon episode in sentence case: only capitalize the first letters of the first word, first word after a colon and proper nouns. Do not enter a period after the episode. Make an open bracket then note the medium of the source. Add a closed bracket and a period. Type “In” followed by the producer's first initial, last name and a comma. Add the parenthetical note “(Producer)” followed by a comma. Enter the series name in italicized sentence case. Note the city and state of origin. Use the two-letter state abbreviation. Insert a comma after the city and place a colon after the state. Conclude the citation by stating the name of the production studio. For example:

Ehrman, D. (Writer), & Duffy, J. (Director). (1993, October 30). Future shock [Television series episode]. In T. Turner, Captain Planet and the Planeteers (italicized). Atlanta, GA: Turner Broadcasting System.

In-Text Citation

Parenthetically cite a cartoon in-text by entering the writer’s and director’s names in first initial-last name format. Separate their names with an ampersand and enter a comma after the director’s name. Then, note the broadcast year. For example:

(D. Ehrman & J. Duffy, 1993)

About the Author

Grace Riley has been a writer and photographer since 2005, with work appearing in magazines and newspapers such as the "Arkansas Democrat-Gazette." She has also worked as a school teacher and in public relations and polling analysis for political campaigns. Riley holds Bachelor of Arts degrees in American studies, political science and history, all from the University of Arkansas.

Photo Credits
  • Pixland/Pixland/Getty Images