How to Cite the Gettysburg Address
There are several different kinds of citation styles, the three most common being the Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), and Chicago Manual of Style (CMS). Each of these styles has a published manual with detailed examples for various types of citations, which can be found both online and in printed form at a library or bookstore. Each of these manuals has an index that lists different types of citable materials such as books, interviews, movies and speeches. You can find the citation style for the Gettysburg Address under speech, oral presentation, or under the format in which you found it.
Include the author's last name. If the last name was not previously stated in the sentence, it should follow the quotation or paraphrase in parentheses. The last name is then followed by the page number or line number, if applicable. For example: "Four score and seven years ago" is still a highly quoted introduction (Lincoln, 234).
Write the author's name, last name first, separated by a comma and followed by a period: Lincoln, Abraham.
Write the title of the address in quotations, followed by a period and then the date the speech was given: "The Gettysburg Address." 19 Nov. 1863.
Insert the place where you found the speech. If it was in a book, the citation goes as follows: Title of the book underlined. Editor or editors' names. City and/or state of publication; Publisher, Year of publication. For websites: Title of the article or website. Date you accessed the site <complete website address>.
For example, for a book:
Lincoln, Abraham. "The Gettysburg Address." 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955.
For a website:
Lincoln, Abraham. "The Gettysburg Address." 19 Nov. 1863. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm>.
Note that for all MLA-style bibliographical citation, all lines of the citation after the first are always indented three to five spaces.
Include the year of publication in parentheses following the author's last name instead of a page or line number. For example: Lincoln (1863) began his speech with "Four score and seven years ago."
Write the author's last name and first initial followed by the year in parentheses: Lincoln, A. (1863).
Write the title as you would in a sentence, followed by a period: The Gettysburg Address.
Insert where you found the address. Citations for a book are as follows: Editor or editors' names (Ed.). Title of the book in sentence case and italicized (page numbers used). City of publication: Publisher. Citations for an online resource: Title of Website in Title Case and Italicized. Retrieved and date of access, from Web address.
For example a book, the citation would look like this:
Lincoln, A. (1863). The Gettsyburg Address. In The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln (234-238). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP.
The citation for a website would look like this:
Lincoln, A. (1863). The Gettysburg Address. Abraham Lincoln Online. Retrieved October 10, 2005, from http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm.
Note that, as in MLA style, all lines after the first are indented three to five spaces.
Write the author's name and the selection used in quotes: Abraham Lincoln, "The Gettysburg Address."
Insert where you found the address. Citations for a book go as follows: in Name of Book in Title Case and Italicized, Editors Names, (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page numbers. Citations for an online resource follow this format: Name of the Website in Title Case and Italicized, website address (date accessed).
An example of a book citation:
- Abraham Lincoln, "The Gettysburg Address" in The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Ed. Roy P. Basler, (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955), 234-238.
An example of a website citation:
- Abraham Lincoln, "The Gettysburg Address", Abraham Lincoln Online, http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm (accessed 25 October 2005).
Note that because CMS-style citation places all citations in either a footnote or an endnote, all your citations will be numbered and will not appear within the text.
Insert a footnote or endnote to your paper for in-text citations, and cite your quote as outlined in step 2.
- Having a writer's handbook can be handy for any time you are using citations.
- When you are not sure how to cite something, such as the Gettysburg Address, always follow the citation rules for the manner in which you found it. For example, if you found the address in a book that contains several articles and an editor, cite it as a chapter in a book or a selection from an anthology.
- Formatting is essential to a proper citation. Be sure to double-check that all your formatting, such as indentation and italicization, is correct.
Items you will need
- "The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers"; Chris Anson and Robert Schwegler; 2005
- How to Write a Bibliography
- Abraham Lincoln Memorial image by EdCooper from Fotolia.com