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How to Cite "Holes" by Louis Sachar


Louis Sachar's young adult novel "Holes" won the Newbery Medal in 1999 and was adapted into a 2003 movie starring Shia LaBeouf. The story takes place in a juvenile detention facility for boys. Students writing book reports or papers that reference "Holes" must provide citations in text and on a bibliography page. The Modern Language Association, American Psychological Association and Chicago style manuals require that citations include the book's author and publication information.

MLA Format

Cite "Holes" by Louis Sachar in MLA format the following way: Sachar, Louis. Holes. New York: Scholastic, 1998.

Italicize the book's title and use the abbreviated form of the publisher's name. For example: "Random" for Random House and "Farrar" for Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Insert a parenthetical citation in MLA format by placing the author's last name and the page number in parentheses. For example: Stanley told Zero "I'm not exactly the luckiest guy in the world" as they trudged through the hot desert (Sachar 160).

Reference the entire book in your paper by stating the author's name in the sentence and omitting the parenthetical citation. For example: In his book, Sachar describes Stanley Yelnats' experiences at a juvenile detention center called Camp Green Lake.

APA Style

Use this citation when following APA style: Sachar, L. (1998). Holes. New York: Random House.

Italicize the title "Holes." Omit words such as "Publishers," "Company" and "Inc." from the publisher's name.

Cite the book when quoting text from "Holes" in the paper by placing the author's last name, the publication date and the page number in parentheses. For example: (Sachar, 1998. p.30). If you summarize or paraphrase a section of the book, omit the page number from the citation.

Chicago Manual of Style

Make a citation in your bibliography using the Chicago Manual of Style the same way you would for MLA style. However, do not shorten the publisher's name; write it as it appears on the book's copyright page.

Cite "Holes" in an endnote or footnote using this style: Louis Sachar, Holes (New York: Yearling Books, 1998), 198. The final number in the citation is the page number being referenced.

Insert a parenthetical citation by placing the author's last name, date of publication and page number in parentheses. Do not insert a comma after the author's name, only after the publication year. Also, do not use the abbreviation "p." before the page number. For example: (Sachar 1998, 22).

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