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Different Types of Bibliographies


A bibliography is a list containing details about sources of information on a specific topic. In a bibliography, writers and researchers list sources such as books, newspapers, websites, and articles from academic journals. Writers may include the author, title, publication date and publisher of the source. Research paper writers usually place the bibliography at the end of the paper. In certain cases, researchers refer to bibliographies as "references" or "works cited." The title depends on the style format of the writing.

Enumerative Bibliography

A writer of an enumerative bibliography lists references according to some specific arrangement. Students writing research papers use this type of bibliography most often. These academic writers arrange enumerative bibliographies by author, subject, date or some other scheme. The items they list share a common theme, such as topic, language or time period. The writer of the bibliography gives enough information about the source to direct readers to this source. The writer would not include descriptive information, such as details about physical qualities of the book, in an enumerative bibliography. A card catalog, a list of references in a research paper, or the works cited in the back of a history book are all examples of enumerative bibliographies.

Analytical Bibliography

A writer of analytical bibliographies uses them to critically study books. The writer of an analytical bibliography may include information about printers and booksellers, descriptions of paper and binding, or discussions of issues that unfolded as the book evolved from a manuscript to published book. Three types of analytical bibliographies include descriptive, historical, and textual. A descriptive bibliography closely examines the physical nature of the book. A historical bibliography discusses the context in which the book was produces. A textual bibliography compares the published work to the author's original manuscript.

Annotated Bibliography

In this type of bibliography, a writer creates an alphabetical list of sources. The writer of an annotated bibliography outlines the type of research done on a certain topic. The writer annotates, or adds notes about, the sources. Therefore, in addition to information about the research sources, the writer comments on the source. The writer may summarize. This means she gives information about the content of each reference. The writer may assess. This means she will evaluate the usefulness of the source. The writer may also reflect. This means she will give her perspective on the usefulness of the text to her particular research.

About the Author

James Guilford has been writing since 1998. His work appears in "The North American Review," "Identity Envy," "Parent Dish" and other publications. Guilford is the author of the novel, "The Pencil Test," as well as several e-books. Guilford has a Bachelor of Arts in sociology from Emory University and a Master of Arts in gifted education from Columbia University.

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