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How to Parenthetically Cite Lecture Notes


Citing material borrowed from outside sources is an important part of researching and writing. You must give credit to others when you refer to their ideas and arguments, including your teachers and professors. Parenthetical citations are located within your text, directly following the quoted or paraphrased material. Parenthetical citations correspond to a list of "Works Cited" or "References" at the end of your paper. There are two main documentation styles that use parenthetical citations: MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA (American Psychological Association).

MLA Style

Begin your parenthetical citation with an open bracket. Write the last name of the lecturer, followed by a comma and a space. Then write the first name of the lecturer. End your citation with a close bracket. If you are citing more than one lecture by the same person within your paper, include an abbreviated title in quotation marks following the lecturer's name. For example:

(Smith, Kevin)

Follow your citation with the appropriate punctuation.

Create an entry on your "Works Cited" page to write the full citation of the lecture. The full citation should begin with the lecturer's last name, followed by a comma, a space and the lecturer's first name. Follow with a period. For example:

Smith, Kevin.

Write the title of the lecture, followed by a period. Place the title in quotation marks. For example:

"Venetian Literature."

Write the name of the convention, the organization, or the class for which the lecture was given, followed by a comma. For example:

Italian 2237: Italian Literature,

Write the name of the location, the city and the state where the lecture was given, followed by a period. For example:

Regional University, Anytown, AK.

Write the date the lecture was given, starting with the day, then the month, and ending with the year. Follow the date with a period. For example:

19 September 2013.

Indicate the medium of your reference. This can be "lecture," "keynote address," or "reading," or another appropriate descriptor.

Make sure that your full citation fits MLA format. Using our example, the full citation would appear like this:

Smith, Kevin. "Venetian Literature." Italian 2237: Italian Literature, Regional University, Anytown, AK. 19 September 2013. Lecture.

APA Style

Begin your parenthetical citation with an open bracket. Write the last name of the lecturer, followed by a comma.

Write the year in which the lecture was given, followed by a close bracket. For example:

(Smith, 2013).

End your parenthetical citation with the appropriate punctuation.

Create an entry on your "References" page to write the full citation of the lecture. The full citation should begin with the lecturer's last name, followed by a comma, a space and the lecturer's first initial. Follow with a period. For example:

Smith, K.

In brackets, write the date the lecture was given, starting with the year and ending with the month and day. Follow the close bracket with a period. For example:

(2013, September 19).

Write the title of the lecture followed by a period.

Venetian Literature.

Write the name of the event or the class at which the lecture was given in italics. End with a period. For example:

Italian 2237: Italian Literature.

Write the words "Lecture conducted from" followed by the name of the sponsoring organization or college. Follow with a comma. For example:

Lecture conducted from Regional University,

Write the name of the city and state where the lecture was given, followed by a period. For example:

Anytown, AK.

Make sure that your full citation matches APA format. For example:

Smith, K. (2013, September 19). Venetian Literature. Italian 2237: Italian Literature. Lecture conducted from Regional University, Anytown, AK.

Tip
  • If the full citation on your "Works Cited" or "References" page exceeds one line, be sure to indent the second line of the citation with one tab or five spaces.
About the Author

Victoria Kennedy has an honors B.A. in English from Wilfrid Laurier University. She works as a writing tutor at her university's writing center and also contributed to her campus newspaper.

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