Narrative writing is formatted like a story. This means all narrative writing has a setting and plot with characters, conflict and resolution, and a beginning, middle and end. Even pieces that are not themselves stories are written with the same structure. A book report, for example, will discuss those points of the narrative and follow a story that includes the author and reader as characters.
Types of Narrators
Every narrative is told by an individual described as the "narrator." Narrators can be limited or omniscient in their point of view. Omniscient narrators know everything about the setting, characters and events of the story and tell readers what they need to know as the information becomes relevant. Limited narrators know only a subset of what's happening in the story -- often because the narrator is a character within the narrative and subject to human sensory limitations -- and tell only what they know as they know it.
Point of View
Each narrator within a piece of narrative writing has a point of view: first person, second person or third person. A first-person narrator describes events that happened to him or that were related to him by others. He may frequently employ the pronoun "I." A third-person narrator describes the narrative from the perspective of an observer. In second-person narration, the writer directly addresses the reader, as if she were describing events to the reader in a conversation. The device isn't used often. You can find examples of it in the "Choose Your Own Adventure" book series.
An Implicit Message
Like most forms of writing, narratives have a message for the reader. Unlike other forms of writing, this message is usually implied through the events of the story and the decisions or dialogue of the characters rather than explicitly spelled out. Aesop's fables are an exception to this rule, as they illustrate the message implicitly then end the story by explicitly calling that message to the reader's attention.
Using Ethos over Logos
One hallmark of narrative writing is that a story's characters may influence its readers. A successful narrative can make a point or sway opinions only if the readers develop an emotional attachment to the main characters. Characters whose actions are based on some strong moral conviction assume a credibility that can persuade others. Using that credibility as a tool of influence employs the technique known as "ethos." When writers, or their characters, rely on facts and plainly stated logic to advance an argument or stand, the technique is called "logos."