"The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins is the first book in the trilogy of the same name. The novel is set in a dystopian world in which the heroine, Katniss Everdeen, volunteers to take her sister's place in a battle to the death known as the Hunger Games. The fictional setting of Panem is one steeped in propaganda, and all is not what it seems in this world that demeans life in favor of superficiality. Irony is used throughout the novel to strengthen this message, support characterization and enhance the theme.
The True Meaning of a Slogan
The slogan for the Hunger Games is, "May the odds be ever in your favor." The government representative for District 12, Effie Trinket, says it after she announces the tributes for each district, and announcers for the Hunger Games use it during interviews with contestants and in commentary as the games are being broadcast. The slogan is a form of verbal irony as it is clear that the odds are never actually in anyone's favor. The people of District 12 suffer daily from hunger and poverty. Even those who live in wealthier districts are still subject to choosing tributes for the games. In the best circumstances, the person who wins the games will be haunted by the bloodshed for years. The others will be killed.
Katniss and Peeta know each other before they appear together in the Hunger Games, but they are not close, nor are they really friends. During an interview, Peeta reveals that he has a crush on Katniss, which makes her angry as she thinks it will make her appear weak. Peeta's confession creates situational irony -- it helps Katniss gain sympathy with the audience, which she would have struggled to do otherwise. Katniss agrees to pretend to reciprocate Peeta's feelings as a way to continue to gain favor with the audience, and the decision creates several instances of dramatic irony. Gale, the boy she really does love, is watching the games from home and does not know that she is pretending to have feelings for Peeta. The reader knows the truth.
The Twist of Useless Skills
The tributes are trained to develop their natural talents and skills to give them a competitive advantage in the Hunger Games. Peeta, who worked in his family's bakery before the games, does not appear to have a valuable skill except the ability to lift heavy things, and the other tributes mock him for his lack of skill. In a turn of situational irony, a seemingly useless skill -- bakery decorating -- saves his life. When he is severely injured and unable to fight, he uses his bakery frosting skills to camouflage himself in the mud and sticks by the riverside. The other tributes pass him by as a result.
Reversal of Fate
The game makers are moved by the audience's reaction to Katniss and Peeta's supposed love story, so they announce that if two tributes remain from the same district, then two winners will be declared. However, when Katniss and Peeta are the last two standing, the game makers change the rule again to create drama by pitting the two lovers against one another. Instead, Katniss and Peeta decide to take their own lives by eating poisonous berries. In a turn of situational irony, the decision to take their own lives is what saves them. Just before they each consume poisoned berries, the game makers announce that their original decision to allow two victors will stand, avoiding the political ramifications of a winless Hunger Games and allowing the two to live.