Structure of Odes
Odes are not restricted to a fixed stanza length, rhyme scheme or metrical scheme. Instead, what is important to the ode is how the stanzas are organized and the consistency of the metrical and rhyme patterns. There are three types of odes: two are classical in structure and the third is irregular. Regardless of type, short odes are very rare, and most odes are at least five stanzas long.
Types of Odes
Odes appear in three varieties: Pindaric, Horatian and irregular. The Pindaric ode -- the original type -- came from Ancient Greece. It was written by Pindar, a Theban poet, who is given credit for inventing the ode. A later version of the ode, invented by the Latin poet Horace, is the Horatian ode. This type of ode was later adopted by John Keats, a 19th century English poet, and used in one of his famous works, “Ode to a Nightingale.” The irregular type of ode does not fit into either the Pindaric or the Horatian category.
The Pindaric ode has a pattern of three stanzas, which include the strophe, antistrophe and an epode. The poem opens with a strophe -- a complex metrical structure that is then mirrored by the antistrophe. The poem ends with an epode -- a section of different length that has a different metrical structure from the other two stanzas. Stanzas vary in length, from four to thirty lines. The Pindaric ode was originally performed by a chorus in front of an audience; an example of the Pindaric ode in English is William Wordsworth’s “Ode on Intimations of Immortality From Recollections of Early Childhood.”
Horatian and Irregular Odes
Unlike the Pindaric ode, the Horatian ode is more contemplative and less formal and ceremonious. It is not meant to be performed, but read. The Horatian ode uses a regular, recurrent stanza pattern. A contemporary example of this type of ode is Allen Tate’s “Ode to the Confederate Dead.” The irregular ode retains both the tone and the thematic elements of the classical odes as well as their formal structures, but it is not exclusively Pindaric or Horatian. Examples of irregular odes include John Keats’ “Ode on a Grecian Urn” and Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind.”