How to Reference Images in Harvard Style
In a research paper containing a description of a picture, you are obliged to cite the picture's origin. The Harvard system of referencing has specific guidelines for in-text citations and bibliographic references for pictures, whether these pictures were viewed in person in a gallery, found in books or accessed on the Internet. The purpose of referencing images is both to recognize the source of the images and to allow readers to locate the pictures.
Images From Galleries or Photograph Collections
Write the artist's or photographer's name first for an in-text citation, followed by the year of the work's production. All information must be in parentheses. An in-text citation of an image can be: (Bates, 1988).
Enter artist's surname and first initial for a bibliographic reference of a gallery image, followed by the title in italics. If the work has no title, include a description in italics. Then add the year of creation in parentheses, the medium, and finally the location of the gallery and its name. An example of a gallery image's bibliographic reference is: Gottlieb, A. Duet. (1962), oil on canvas, Atlanta: High Museum of Art.
Enter the photographer's surname and first initial for a bibliographic reference of a photograph collection's image. Then add the year of production in parentheses, the title or a description in italics, the medium in brackets, and the collection's details. The details must include the collection's name, the picture's document number, the collection's geographic location and the name of the library or archive where the collection is stored. A bibliographic reference of a photograph collection's image can be: Bates, A., 1988. Bronx by night. [photograph] (Bates' New York, image 25, New York: Mid-Manhattan Library).
Images From Books
Enter the surname of the book's author for an in-text citation of an image found in a book. Add the year of the book's publication and the page where the image is located in the book. All this information must be in parentheses. For example, an in-text citation can be (Moore, 1970, page 70).
Write the author's surname and first initial to begin the bibliographic reference. Add the year of the book's publication in parentheses and the title of the book in italics.
Add the place of the book's publication to the bibliographic reference. This must be a town or city, not a country. Enter a colon and the name of the publisher. A bibliographic reference can be: Moore, A. (1970) Wagner. Manchester: Ostrich.
Images From Online Sources
Write the name of the creator and the year the image was created for an in-text citation of an electronic image. If the name of the author is unknown, enter the first two or three words of the picture's title. If the date is unknown, add "n.d," which stands for "no date," to the in-text citation. An example can be: (Child playing football, n.d.).
Enter the creator's name to start the bibliographic reference for an online image, followed by the year of production in parentheses. Add the title of the image or a description in italics and the medium in brackets. When the creator of the image is unknown, place the year after the work's title or description. Again, use "n.d." when the year of production is unknown.
Write "Available at" and paste the page's full URL into the bibliographic reference. Finally, include the date you accessed the image in brackets. For example, a bibliographic reference for an online image might be: Conor, M. (2009) Weeping mother. [online image]. Available at: http://www.conor.com/weepingmother.htm [Accessed 18 August 2011].
Tasos Vossos has been a professional journalist since 2008. He has previously worked as a staff writer for "Eleftheros Tipos," a leading newspaper of Greece, and is currently a London-based sports reporter for Perform Sports Media in the United Kingdom. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in communication and media from the University of Athens.