Do Haikus Rhyme? Poetry Rules for Haiku

Haiku originated in Japan but haiku poems are now written in every language.

The haiku form of poetry originated in Japan where the 17th-century poet Basho is considered the "father" of the form. Haiku is sparse and has strict syllabic and line restraints yet the discipline has produced many beautiful and soulful poems. Haiku tends to focus on nature and the seasons. It captures a moment in time by distilling a moment's observation to its very essence. The form relies on acute observation with all the senses.

Here are the 3 requirements to writing haiku:

Line count

Each haiku poem consists of just three lines. Other poems with strict line counts include the sonnet which always has 14 lines. In longer poems there is ample time to explore themes, and describe ideas and feelings. In the short form of haiku, each word must count. These poems are usually written in present tense and it is most common to focus these three-line poems around the natural world, especially for beginners.

Syllables

The number of syllables in haiku is very specific: the first line of a haiku is made up of five syllables, the second line consists of seven syllables and the third line, and last line, also has five syllables. When writing haiku, it's imperative that these syllable counts are followed closely, otherwise you will not writing haiku but simply a free verse poem.

"Stars fall to dark earth / splinter on a flake of glass / mirrors of cracked sky" is an example of haiku's syllabic form.

Rhyme

Haiku poetry does not usually rhyme at the end of the lines although there are exceptions. The main requirement is that the haiku should sound natural and not contrived. This form of Japanese poetry allows creativity. Some haiku poets prefer to rely on internal rhymes and half-rhymes instead of end rhymes. Because the syllable count is so restricted, these short poems can vary in things like syllable pattern and rhyme scheme. Writing haiku is an art of creative writing because of the specific haiku structure and poetic form.

History

Haiku developed out of the Japanese tanka poetry form. This consists of five lines of poetry: five syllables, followed by seven, followed by five and then two lines of seven syllables. The first three lines, called the "hokku", set the scene for the poem, typically focusing on a season or nature. At the end of the 18th century the first three lines took on an independent life as the haiku that we know today. Traditional haiku and modern haiku, like English haiku, share many similarities, and modern poets learned this art form from traditional Japanese haiku and Japanese poets, like Yosa Buson, Matsuo Bashō, and Kobayashi Issa.

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