How to Cite Media in APA Style

The American Psychological Association is a scientific and professional organization which represents psychologists within the United States. They have developed guidelines that are used by authors and students to follow in order to consistently apply punctuation, format articles, construct tables and to properly cite works. APA format is primarily used within the social sciences and is outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association which was released in its sixth edition in July 2009.

Step 1

Cite a video by placing the below information in the following order: producer's last name, first initial and director's last name, first initial. Follow this by the year, written numerically and place in parentheses. Next place the title of the video and the format in brackets, the country it was produced in, and the studio. Finally place the web page URL where the video might be located. The citation should look like this:

Alexson, M. & Jones, M. (1988). A Really Good Video [VHS]. United States: Tom Studios. Available from

Step 2

Cite music recordings by indicating the following information, as applicable, in order: composer 's last name, first initial. Include the year in parentheses, the composition title, the name of the artist who recorded the song in brackets, the title of recording and format in brackets, the city and label and the webpage the song was retrieved from including database name or URL. The citation should look like the example below.

Marcus, L. (1998). A Really Good Song [Teri Orchestra]. A Really Good Song [CD]. Los Angeles: American Records. Retrieved from Anderson-Maxwell Database.

Step 3

Cite podcasts using a similar format as other media. Include the author's surname followed by the first Initial and second Initial, or the author's screen name. Next identify the producer if there is one, the year, month and day of podcast in parentheses, the title of podcast and the retrieval information. Follow the example below for correct formatting:

Waterby, N. (2003, August 12). A Really Good Podcast [Audio podcast].

        Retrieved from

Step 4

Cite online books providing information as available on the author, print version publication date in parentheses-- electronic version publication date if there is no print version -- title in italics, print version publication place and publisher, date accessed, internet location and which URL or web page the book was accessed from. Follow the following example for the correct format:

Nickelberg. (1976). A Really Good Book (in italics). Pittsburgh: Big Boy Books. Accessed August 12, 2009, from

Step 5

Cite an online article by including information on the author, the title of article, the year in parentheses, the title of the online source or periodical in italics, volume and issue number, as well as the website address the article was retrieved from. The example below reflects the proper formatting of this citation:

Samuelsson, A. A., & Zucker, B. B. (1999). A Really Good Article. A Really Good Online Periodical (in italics), 327. Retrieved from

Step 6

Images must also be cited, providing source information and giving credit to the photographer. Include the creator's last name, first initial, followed by the year, month and day in parentheses. Next place the title of image and format in square brackets and information on the database or URL where the picture was retrieved. Follow the example below for proper APA style formatting:

Severns, T. (2010, January 19). [Games at the library] [Photograph]. Retrieved from Flickr database.


Cite in-text by placing the last name and year in brackets following the direct quote or paraphrasing. It should look like this: (Nguyen, 2009)

Things You'll Need

  • Book with publishers information
  • Paper
  • Computer