Your bibliography includes all of the sources, ranging from online articles to photographs and even Tweets, that you consult in your research. Here, you will learn how to create your bibliography for Internet sources in different writing styles with examples. Entries are alphabetized by the first word of each entry.
American Psychological Association suggests including a Digital Object Identifier if available because Uniform Record Locators (web addresses) may change. APA cites online sources in a bibliography as follows: Last, A. B., & Last, C. D. (Date). Article cited. Publication in Italics, volume (issue), page range. Retrieved from http://www.onlineperiodical.com/url. Newspaper articles’ dates are cited as follows: (Year, Month, Day). Chapters or sections use the word “In” between the article and publication title. For abstracts of full text articles, insert “[Abstract]” in between the article and publication titles, and for abstracts without full text articles, insert “Abstract retrieved from” database and “Ascension no.” (See Reference 3).
Modern Languages Association does not require URLs because they may change, but this tutorial will show them. MLA cites online sources in a bibliography as follows: Last, First, and Last, Second. Site Name. Version number. Institution or Organization, creation date, publication medium, access date. http://www.webreference.com/url/. When certain information is not available, use these abbreviations: “n.p.” for no publisher or sponsor and “n.d.” for no publication date (See Reference 4). MLA cites Tweets as follows: Last, First (UserName). “Tweet.” Day Month Year, time. Tweet. (See Reference 2).
Chicago Manual of Style cites web content as follows: Site. “Title in Uppercase,” last modified Month date, year, http://www.webcontent.com/url. If you find the source from a commercial database, then include the database name followed by the ascension number in parentheses after the publication facts. Blog entries and messages do not usually appear in Chicago-Style bibliographies. A Chicago-Style blog entry looks like this: Last, First, “Blog Entry Title,” Blog Title in Italics, Month date, year of entry, http://www.blog.com/url; if you cite a blog comment, then include Commenter, Month date, year of comment (time) before entry information. Messages would be cited as follows: "First and Last name of sender, “email” or “text message to author,” Month date, year (See Reference 1).
Here are examples of what Internet source entries would look like in a biography, depending on the style. An article in APA looks like this: Posner, B. Z., & Kouzes, J. M. (1994). An extension of the Leadership Practices Inventory to individual contributors. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54(1), 959-966. doi:10.1177/0013164494054004012. A Tweet in MLA looks like this: Tebow, Tim (TimTebow). “Happy Father's Day! Dad, thank you for being a great, Godly example & role model for our family. Love you so much Dad!” 16 June 2013, 9:28 a.m. Tweet. A blog in Chicago-Style looks like this: Karena Dawn and Katrina Hodgson, “Endless Summer with TIU!,” ToneItUp, June 20, 2013, http://www.toneitup.com/blog.php?Endless-Summer-with-TIU-5839.