How to Do Turabian Footnotes

In the course of your academic career you may be called upon to submit to the citation guidelines of a certain Kate A. Turabian. If you are further required to use Turabian footnotes rather than in-text parenthetical notation, do not despair: The rules for executing Turabian footnotes are not terribly different from other styles.

Step 1

Place the footnote numbers in the text directly after the phrase or passage to which it refers.

Step 2

Enter the actual footnotes in numerical order at the bottom of each page. The footnote numbers in the text and in the footnotes themselves should be in the superscript style (raised above the text line).

Step 3

Enter the complete citation for the first reference to a particular source. This means including author, title, publication place, publishing company, publication date, and page number(s), with the first line indented (opposite of a Turabian bibliography).

Step 4

Check that your citation is formatted correctly by comparing to this sample Turabian footnote taken from Ohio State University's Turabian style guide (for a book with one author):

Richard Saul Wurman, Information Anxiety (Indianapolis, IN: QUE, 2001), 71.

Step 5

For subsequent citations to the same source, the author's name, followed by the page number, is sufficient (unless you have two sources from the same author, in which case you must also include the piece title after the author's last name). Divide each piece of information with a comma. For example:

Camus, 27.

Step 6

When the source citation is the same as the previous one, enter the Latin abbreviation "ibid," followed by the page number if it is different.

Step 7

At the end of the first citation to a particular source, add an explanation to future citation style (e.g. Hereafter cited as Camus, The Fall).

Step 8

Keep footnotes single spaced within entries but double-space between entries.

To avoid plagiarism, be as thorough as possible in your citation: note resources each time they are referenced.