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How to Cite APA in References Without a Date or an Author

Updated July 19, 2017

Step 1

Insert the reference into the reference list alphabetically according to the title.

Step 2

Begin the entry with the title of the reference. Italicize the title if it is a book. If it is a periodical, enclose the title in quotation marks. End with a period after the title.

Step 3

Follow the title with "n.d.," the abbreviation for "no date," in parentheses.

Step 4

Complete the rest of the reference entry as you would for any other entry. For example, if your entry is for a periodical, complete the entry as you would for any other periodical that did include an author and date. For example:

"Child Brides of Afghanistan." (n.d.), Childhood Issues, 54-57.

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Tips

  • Use a shortened version of the title and "n.d." for in-text citations with no author or date. Italicize the title of a book or put quotation marks around the title of an article or essay. For example, ("Childhood," n.d.).
  • As an example, Merriam-Webster's online dictionary does not have authors or dates. Cite an entry like this, with the website name in italics: Citation. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/citation

About the Author

Petra Wakefield is a writing professional whose work appears on various websites, focusing primarily on topics about science, fitness and outdoor activities. She holds a Master of Science in agricultural engineering from Texas A&M University.