Scholastic aptitude and achievement tests such as the SAT, MAT or GRE examinations frequently ask analogy questions based on vocabulary categories. Semantic analogies are word usage analogies that emphasize the similarity or difference of word definitions. An example of a synonym analogy could be peace: harmony, meaning that peace is similar to harmony. An antonym analogy could be straight: curved, emphasizing that straight is the opposite of curved.
Classification analogies are based on whether examples are members of the same group or category. “Part to whole” are examples of this type of analogy. A ring: jewelry :: finger: hand analogy means that a ring is a type of jewelry just as a finger is a part of a hand.
Association analogies point out cause-and-effect, functional and sequential order relationships. A fire: smoke analogy shows the relationship that a fire is the cause of smoke. A functional analogy could be keyboard: type demonstrating that a keyboard is used for typing. Sequential order would be demonstrated by first: second :: fourth: fifth.
Mathematical analogies test similarities of equality or proportions of numbers. Examples of mathematical analogies could include .75: ¾, meaning they are equal figures. Or if a=5 and b= 6, then a+b: 12 :: 4: 5, meaning they represent unequal values.
Non-semantic logical analogies are those that compare letter patterns and phonetics. For instance, gum: dumb :: tap: lap shows that gum rhymes with dumb just as tap rhymes with lap. A letter pattern analogy might show that the compared words have similar letters in them, such as the ato in anatomy: atoll.
There are many applications for analogies. Analogies can be used between places and location such as Detroit: Michigan, showing that Detroit is a city in Michigan. An action to object analogy might be write: pen where writing is accomplished with a pen. Or an analogy emphasizing characteristics might be ruby: red, with ruby being a type of red color. Analogies are often used in law to resolve issues where there is no previous ruling and similar cases are considered to be analogous to a case. Analogies are also commonly used in evolutionary biology to compare functions and appendages of different animals. The most recognizable usages of analogies is in proverbs such as “turned up like the proverbial bad penny” and idioms, such as “to have a chip on one’s shoulder.”