How to Document an Interview Source in APA Format

An interview that is recorded via video, audio, or written transcript requires its own formal entry in an APA reference list. On the other hand, when an interview is conducted as a source and not recorded, it is considered an informal communication and will only be cited in the text itself; no reference listing is needed in this case.

In-Text Citation

The in-text citation for a video, audio, or written transcript of an interview follows the same "author, year" format as many other APA citations. In this case, the authors include the names of both the interviewer and interviewee, if available.

For example:

During the interview, Kingsolver talks about the importance of the central question when writing her novels (Kingsolver & Swaim, 1990).

If there is no audio, video, or written record of the interview, the in-text citation should be as follows:

(Interviewee Name, personal communication, Month, Day and Year of Interview).


During our interview, the principal confirmed that the student drop-out rate had indeed declined after implementing the new teaching methods (M. Smith, personal communication, January 15, 2010).

Reference List

The reference listing for the recorded interview should be formatted as follows:

Author, A. (Interviewee) & Author, B. (Interviewer). (Year). Title ( in italics) [Type of recording, i.e. audio, video, or transcript]. Retrieved from URL

For example:

Kingsolver, B. (Interviewee) & Swaim, D. (Interviewer). (1990). Audio Interview with Barbara Kingsolver (in italics) [Audio interview]. Retrieved from

There is no reference listing for the interview that is not recorded as it is considered a personal communication.